Set Windows 10 to release Caps Lock by pressing the shift key

1.  Press the Windows key on the keyboard and click on the gear
wheel icon to bring up “Settings”.

2.  Click on “Time & Language”.

3  Click on “Date, time & regional formatting”  (on the right).

4.  Click on “Language” on the left sidebar.

5.  Click on “Spelling, typing & keyboard settings”  (on the right).

6 .  Scroll to the bottom and click on “Advanced keyboard settings”.

7.  Click on “language bar options”.

8.  Click on the “Advanced Key Settings” tab.

9.  Fill in the “Press the SHIFT key” circle.


How to use VLC Mobile to transfer videos from a computer to an iPad

I'm writing this post because the procedure to transfer videos to VLC
for Mobile does not seem to be very well documented on the internet.

There are several ways to transfer videos from a computer to an iPad, 
but the VLC for Mobile iPad app has several advantages.

1) The rate of speaking can be slowed down or speeded without changing
the pitch of the speakers voices.

2) The frequency spectrum of the sound can be adjusted.  You can raise or
lower the treble or the bass.

3) The location within the video you are watching can be advanced or set
back, so you can easily replay a scene or skip over parts of the video.

Follow the steps below to use VLC for Mobile to transfer videos
to your iPad.

1) From the App Store on your iPad, download "VLC for Mobile" (it's free).

2) On your computer, bring up iTunes.

3) With a USB cable, connect your computer to your iPad.

4) In the iTunes window, after about 30 seconds, under the "Account" tab 
a small light grey image of an iPad will appear.  Click on that image.

5) In the iTunes window, under the listing for your iPad, under "Settings" 
at the end of the list, click on "File Sharing".

6) Then, to the right under "Apps", click on the VLC image.

7) Now, on the right you will see "VLC Documents".  Click on the
"Add File…" button at the bottom right.

8) Select the video on your computer that you want to transfer and
include its accompanying subtitle (.srt) file if it exists.  Click on the "Open" 
button in the iTunes window.  The file will then be added to VLC for Mobile
on your iPad.


Vitamins for the Mind – Solutions

The 4:00 Meeting – Solution

Let Tt be time it takes Tom to walk half the distance between their
original places.

Let Tb be time it takes Bill to walk half the distance between their
original places.

A) Bill leaves at 4:00 – 3Tb.
     Tom arrives 11 minutes later. That’s 4:00 -3Tb +11.
     Tom walks back to the center: 4:00 -3Tb +11 + Tt.
     At which time it’s 4:00: 4:00 -3Tb +11 + Tt = 4:00.
     The 4 o’clock’s cancel:

                                                  Tt -3Tb + 11 = 0.

B) Similarly,                           Tb -3Tt + 15 = 0.

C) Solving, we get Tt = 7 minutes, and Tb = 6 minutes.
     So Tom leaves at 3:39 and Bill leaves at 3:42.



Alice Forgets Her Purse – Solution

Let Ve be the rate of the down-moving escalator in steps per second.
Let Va be the rate of Alice in steps per second as she goes down the escalator.
Let L be the number of steps on the surface of the escalator.

A) Alice takes 50 steps going down and 125 steps going up, so because her rate
     going up is five times as fast, the ratio of her down and up times is

50     125         50    25          50     Va         2
—- / ——   =   –/ —-   =   –— x —-   =   —-
Va     5Va         Va    Va         Va     25         1        

So if Alice takes 50 steps going down, she takes 25 steps going up.

B) As Alice goes down, 50Va steps disappear go over the bottom, so the
     difference, L – 50Va, must be 50 because she arrived at the bottom in 50 steps.

     We have L – 50Va = 50,  so:
                                                            50Va = L – 50.

As Alice goes up, 25Va steps come over the top, so the sum, L + 25Va, must be
125 because she arrived at the top in 125 steps. We have L + 25Va = 125, so:

                                                            25Va = 125 – L.

C) Dividing the equations in A) and B), we have:

50Va             2         L – 50
———-   =   —-    = ———   
25Va             1        125 – L

Solving:   250 – 2L = L – 50;    L = 300;    and, finally,

                                      L = 100 steps on the surface of the escalator.

How to copy videos and live video streams from the internet

How to copy videos, live video streams, or live news reports
(like from CNN) to your Windows computer

by Bob Day

September 15, 2018

1. What you will need:
   a) The VideoCacheView app from NirSoft.  Here's a link:
        Near the bottom of the page, there's a link to
        download the app.

   b) Another useful app is MediaInfo, which is able to
        determine the format of a video file.
        A link to it is:

   c) Another app is the VideoSolo Free Video Converter, which
        can convert FLV format video files to MP4 format video files.  
        Here's a link:

2. Copying a video using the Firefox browser:
   a) Play the entire video or live video stream until the end.  
        Then close the browser.

   b) Run VideoCacheView.exe, and locate your video.  You can  
        recognize it by the browser you used (in this case Firefox),
        the very recent date and time, and probably its large file
        size.  Also, note the format under "Content Type".  

   c) Make a copy of the file on your computer desktop and change
        its file name to an appropriate name.  (If you want to post
        it on YouTube, give it a very unique name so you will be
        able to find it easily.  (Note: YouTube allows you to slow
        down the speaking rate of speaker without changing the pitch
        of his or her voice — a very nice feature.))

   d) If the file's Content Type is MP4, add the extension ".mp4"
        to the filename and you're done.  If the Content Type is
        MP2T, the file is an flv format file.  In that case, add the
        extension ".flv" to the filename and run the VideoSolo app
        to convert the file to the MP4 format.  (Also see Appendix 2,

   e) Post the video on YouTube if you'd like.

Appendix 1
   The default size of Firefox's cache buffer for temporary files
   is 50 MB (megabytes) The cache is where Firefox stores all of
   its temporary files, including video files.  If you want to
   copy videos that are longer than, say, 10 minutes, you'll
   need to increase the size of the cache (so the cache will have
   plenty of room for all the files it needs to temporarily store).  
   Here's how to do it with the Firefox browser:
   a) Enter "about:config" (without the quotes) into the address
        bar (where "http://" URLs go).  

   b) After you "accept the risk", Firefox's internal settings will
        be displayed, and starting at the top left will be a search
        window.  Enter "browser.cache.disk" (without the quotes) into
        the search window and press Enter.

   c) Then right click on "browser.cache.disk.capacity" and click on
        "Modify" and enter the value you wish.  The units are in
         kilobytes (KB).  So, for example, 50000 is fifty megabytes (MB).

   d) On the next line, if necessary, modify the value of
        "browser.cache.disk.enable" to "true".  Exit the window and
        you're done.  

Appendix 2
Often a video will be composed of a sequence of several MP2T (flv)
files, and to get the complete video, this sequence of MP2T fles must
be strung together, from earliest to latest.  To do this, first
download and install the Avidemux app.  Here's a link to the download:

Then, do the following steps:
   a) Use Video Cache View to find the video you want.  Then copy the
        MP2T files in the sequence to a folder you've created (They'll be
        very close together in time, spaced just a few seconds apart.).  
        Rename the files with names that indicate their order in time,
        and tack onto each the extension ".flv".

   b) Bring up the Avidemux app, and drag the files in the folder, in
        time sequence, into the area next to the column of option
        selections on the left. (Note: the first file will create an
        image in this area — just copy the succeeding files onto the
        top of the image.)  Make sure that a little window saying
        "Checking if timestamp…" pops up when you drag an MP2T file
        onto the area.  If it doesn't, the file hasn't actually been
        copied.  In that case, drag the file again.

   c) Under "Output Format", select the option "MP4 Muxer".  Then click
        on the save icon (looks like a floppy disk) in the toolbar at the
        top of the window.  Give the file a name and click on "Save".  
        The output MP4 file will be saved in the folder you created for
        the MP2T files.  Exit Avidemux and you're done.


Easy to Build 40 Hz Gamma Wave Flashing LED Lamp

According to an artcle in the December 8, 2016 issue of the journal Nature, an
LED light that fashes at 40 Hz, which is the frequency of Gamma wave in the
brain, may alleviate the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Also, a 40 Hz
fashing LED light is said to be an aid to meditaton.

In this artcle, I will describe an easy way to build a 40 Hz fashing LED foor
lamp. About all you need to know is a litle bit about electricity that you probably
learned as a kid, and a litle bit about household wiring, such as how to replace
an electrical outlet in the wall of your home.

The parts you will need
1. A DROK LCD Display Square Wave Generator,

Price on Amazon: $11.20.

2. A DC solid state relay,
Digi-Key part number CC1126-ND. Price on Digi-Key: $20.20.

3. A 12 volt DC power supply, such as this one on Amazon:

Price on Amazon: $13.99.

4. Two 12 volt LED light bulbs, such as this one on Amazon:
Price on Amazon: $15.98.

5. Dual light bulb socket, such as this on Amazon:
Price on Amazon: 6.99.

6. Two to six foot extension cord. Available at a local hardware store.

7. Twist-on wire connectors, such as these on Amazon:
Price on Amazon: $2.07.

8. A standard foor lamp.

9. #22 gauge hook-up wire, such as this on Amazon:
Price on Amazon: $18.95.

10. Soldering iron and solder. Soldering the connectons to the DROK Square Wave Generator is preferable but not absolutely nessesary. If you don’t solder the connectons, strip about V/8ths of an inch of insulaton of the ends of hook-up wires and loop them through the connectng holes in the DROK in twist-tie fashion, and twist tghtly.

Putting it together
1. Connect the negatve wire from the power supply to “VIN –” (the negatve input) on the DROK square wave generator.
VIN -” is internally connected to GND on the output terminal screw #1 (the positve output) on the solid state relay.

2. Cut the extension cord at a convenient length, measured from its socket end.

3. Connect terminal screw #4 (the negatve input) on the solid state relay both to the Neutral (wide slot) side of the extension cord socket AND to GND on the output side of the output side of the DROK square wave generator.

4. Connect the positve wire from the power supply both to “VIN +” (the positve input) on the DROK square wave generator AND to terminal screw #1 (the positve output) on the solid state relay.

5. Connect terminal screw #2 (the positve input) on the solid state relay to PWM on the output side of the DROK square wave generator.

6. Connect terminal screw #2 (the negatve output) on the solid state relay to the HOT (narrow slot) side of the extension cord socket.

7. Turn the foor lamp off, unplug it, and screw the dual light bulb socket into its socket. Screw in the two 12 volt LED light bulbs.

8. Read the instructons that came with the DROK square wave generator.

9. Plug the power supply into the wall and set the DROK to 40Hz and the duty cycle to 50%.

10. Plug the lamp into the socket of the extension cord.

11. Turn the foor lamp on and it should now be fashing at 40 Hz! If you like, you can experiment with other frequencies and duty cycles.

About Butterscotch and How to Make Butterscotch Flavor Powder

About Butterscotch
      My sources for this are many Google searches about butterscotch on the internet.
First, there is no such thing as “true butterscotch”.  The many recipes I found have various
ratios of sugar to butter, and there is a variation in the ingredients.  So there is only
“version A” of butterscotch, “version B”, “version C” and so on.  The commonality
among most of them is that they contain sugar, butter, salt, and molasses.  The sugar
can be light brown sugar, dark brown sugar, or just plain sugar.  If it’s just plain sugar,
molasses is added to the recipe; otherwise, molasses is optional.  If molasses is added
it can be plain molasses or, occasionally, blackstrap molasses.  The sugar to butter
ratio varies greatly — anywhere from 4:3 to 16:1 by weight, I’ve read.

The sugar, butter, salt, and molasses are mixed together and cooked until the temperature
is raised to anywhere between 245 degrees F to 310 degrees F. 

One question I asked myself is why, if molasses is just mostly caramelized sugar (as many
sources on the internet say), why, if it’s added separately, is it always cooked along with the
other ingredients and not added later?  After further research on the internet, I found the
answer: Molasses is NOT caramelized sugar!  Why?  To refine sugar, sugar cane is boiled in
a vacuum at 160 degrees F.  160 degrees F is well below the caramelization temperature of
sugar, which begins at about 320 degrees F.  Also at 160 degrees F the Maillard reaction
(which I’ll get to shortly) is very slow, so molasses has undergone very little Maillard reaction.

Caramelization is not important for butterscotch because butterscotch is not caramelized, but
the Maillard reaction is very important since it is what develops the butterscotch flavor.  The
Maillard reaction takes place at an optimal rate between 270 and 310 degrees F.  To avoid

caramelization from occurring, among all but one of the recipes  I’ve seen for butterscotch,
the maximum cooking temperature is 300 degrees F.

How to Make Butterscotch Flavor Powder
      I like the flavor of butterscotch a lot, and after some experimenting, I figured out how to
make a butterscotch flavor powder that I could add to other things, such as yogurt.  The
following recipe is based on recipes for butterscotch I’ve found on the internet, plus a
couple of my own ideas, which seem to be original.

60 grams      dark brown sugar

30 grams      unsalted butter
1/8 tsp          salt (not sea salt)

1 1/2 Tbsp    blackstrap molasses (optional, to make the flavor “extra butterscotchy”)
2 tsp             water (approximately)

Mix the ingredients together in a pan, adding just enough water to wet down the
other ingredients, set a stovetop burner in the medium heat range, and, stirring
constantly, cook slowly until the temperature of the mixture is a carefully measured
300 to 310 degrees F.  Cooking slowly is important for giving the Maillard reaction time
to take place. (The Maillard reaction is what develops the butterscotch flavor.)  For
measuring the temperature, I use an infrared surface temperature thermometer.
There are many brands of these infrared thermometers on Amazon.

When the mixture is cooked, pour it immediately (not letting it harden) onto a flat
surface that has been covered with a sheet of parchment paper, and let the mixture
cool for, say, 20 minutes, until it is rock solid.  Then crack it up with your food-gloved
hands, transfer it to a blade type coffee grinder, and grind it into a fine powder.  This
may require several “transfer-grind” operations.  Store the powder in a refrigerator,
and use it as desired.  When using the powder, also add some vanilla flavor or extract.

Serving size 1 Tbsp.  Makes about 7 servings.

Minus Times Minus Equals Plus

Here’s an example I like of a negative number times another
negative number equaling a positive number:

I have been giving away five dollars each minute.
Currently, at time t = 0, I have zero dollars, but I am continuing
to give away five dollars each minute in the form of IOU’s.
Thus, the equation for the number of dollars I have at time t is
D = -5t, where D represents dollars.

Using that equation, calculate how many dollars I had four
minutes ago.

Vitamins for the Mind

                               The 4:00 Meeting
Tom and Bill are standing at two places on a straight road.  Tom starts
walking toward Bill and arrives at Bill’s original place 11 minutes after
Bill had left.  At perhaps a different time, Bill starts walking toward Tom
and arrives at Tom’s original place 15 minutes after Tom had left.  When
each reaches the other’s original place, he immediately turns and starts
back, and they meet in the center at 4:00.  Assuming that they walked at
constant rates, when did each start to travel on the road?

                          Alice Forgets Her Purse
On her way out of Macys, Alice walks down a down-moving escalator
in 50 steps.  When she reaches the bottom, she suddenly remembers
she forgot her purse, and she turns and runs back up the escalator in
125 steps, stepping five times as fast as she went down.  How many steps
are on the surface of the escalator?

                               The Twelve Coins
You have 12 coins.  They are identical, except that one of them is either
heavier or lighter than the rest.  In three weighings on a balance scale, find
the odd coin and whether it’s heavier or lighter.

Complete Protein Organic Whole Grain Bread Recipe

It took me many trials and many adjustments to develop this recipe for a nicely rising whole grain bread.  Note: The amounts may look over obsessive in their precision, but they are just the amounts I somehow ended up with over many trial loaves.  They probably don't need to be all that exact.

Dry Ingredients                                                    Liquid Ingredients
78g  King Arthur organic whole wheat flour         322g   water
        (not stone ground)                                        29g     clover honey (or other mild
79g  organic whole amaranth flour                       1/2 Tbsp  extra virgin organic olive oil,
        (not stone ground)                                                       first cold press
79g  organic whole quinoa flour (not stone ground)
79g  organic whole buckwheat flour (not stone ground)
70g  Bob's Red Mill vital wheat gluten flour
23g  King Arthur Baker's Special Dry Milk (a nonfat non-instant dry milk)
7.7g salt (not sea salt)
6.1g Fleischmann's bread machine yeast

1.  The wheat, amaranth, quinoa, and buckwheat should add to 315g — measure these without rezeroing the scale: 78g, 157g, 236g, and finally 315g.

2.  For baking the bread: In my Zojirushi BBCC-X20 bread machine I used the Home Made baking course in Memory 1, which I set to the following numbers of minutes: Preheat 30, Knead 23, and Rise1 45.  Then I  transferred the loaf to a 8 1/2" x 4 1/2" loaf pan and did a final rise in the bread machine for about 44 minutes (a "Rise2" so the surrounding temperature would be 82.4 degrees F).

3.  Put the loaf into an oven preheated to 425 degrees F and immediately lower the temperature to 400 degrees F. After 9 minutes lower the temperature to 350 degrees F.  Tent the loaf after 19 minutes and continue baking until the internal temperature of the loaf is 201 degrees F (94 degrees C).  The total baking time should be about 34 minutes.

4.  Makes about a 1 1/2 pound loaf.

Free Will

I have been reading Sam Harris's latest book, "Free Will", in which he
claims that free will does not exist.  Basically, he refers to some scientific
studies that show that all actions that you consciously decide to take
have actually been decided for you, totally unconsciously, in your
unconscious mind a few hundred milliseconds, or sometimes a few
seconds, before it enters into your conscious mind and you "decide" to
take it.  But since your unconscious mind has already decided, your
conscious decision is an illusion — you actually had no free will about it.

Harris is aware of the idea of quantum uncertainty, and acknowledges
that Martin Heisenberg, a biologist, has found that certain processes in
the brain occur quantum randomly (thus truly randomly), but says that
has nothing to do with free will.

But I think it may.  Consider this example, which is based on an actual
experience I had in solving a problem:  I had previously noticed that
when you heat a UPS label on a package with a hair dryer and peel it
off, it leaves a sticky area where the label was.  My problem was to
figure out how to get rid of the stickiness.

I don't know much about how the brain works, but as far as I know, there
is nothing to contradict the hypothetical mechanism I will suggest.  And
it coincides with my thinking process in solving the problem:  When you
are trying to solve a problem, perhaps there is an unconscious
mechanism in the brain that generates possibilities at random,
randomly cranking through and randomly associating past events,
objects, tools, materials, devices, et cetera that you know about.  And
when it finds an association that might relate to your problem, presents
it to your conscious mind for further consideration.  In my case of how
to get rid of the stickiness here's how it might work:

My thinking process:
How to get rid of the stickiness???  — think… think… think… (unconscious
mind cranking out a possibility).  Conscious mind:  Aha!  Try rubbing it with
a white pencil eraser.  Hmm — no, that sounds like it would just rub the
sticky around, but not get rid of it.

So,   — think… think… think…
(unconscious mind generating another random possibility).  Conscious
mind:  Aha!  Try spreading glue over the stickiness and letting it dry. 
Hmm — Maybe.  I have some Elmer's white school glue, I'll try that. …
No — sorry — it didn't work.

Back to   — think… think… think…
(unconscious mind generating yet another random possibility). 
Conscious mind:  Aha!  Try rubbing over it with a wax candle.  Hmm —
interesting.  Strange, but who knows?  So try it. … Yes!  Amazing.  It
worked perfectly!  Problem solved.

That's a pretty good description of how my thinking went in my
conscious mind.  Of course, I have no idea what actually went on in my
unconscious mind.  But where do these ideas that just pop into your
head come from?  Especially the one about the wax candle.  The few
candles I even own have been sitting on a back shelf for several years,
untouched.  I haven't even the vaguest (conscious) clue about where
that idea came from.

But, if there is a part of your unconscious mind that randomly
generates ideas for your conscious consideration and decision as to
whether or not to act on, I think that would be an example of free will.